Children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Analysis of survival and predictors of mortality
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Abstract in English, Spanish Introduction: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children is a procedure that is not exempt of severe complications. Admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is associated with a high mortality rate. Objectives: To analyze survival and predictors of mortality among children who received a HSCT and were admitted to the PICU, and to develop a mortality prediction model in this population. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of children and adolescents who received a HSCT between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2019 and were admitted to the PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Results: Out of 264 children receiving the transplant, 114 were admitted to the PICU. The overall mortality rate was 29% (n = 34). The type of transplant, underlying disease, febrile neutropenia event, cytomegalovirus infection, respiratory failure, graft versus host disease (GVHD), myeloablative chemotherapy, and previous malnutrition were associated with higher mortality rates. In the multivariate analysis, GVHD (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.92-2.98), need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.39- 5.73), alternative donor transplant (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.14-2.17), and previous malnutrition (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.22-3.89) were associated with a higher mortality rate. Conclusion: In the studied population, 2 out of 3 children who received a HSCT and were admitted to the PICU survived. GVHD, mechanical ventilation, alternative donor transplant, and previous malnutrition were predictors of mortality. Keywords: graft versus host disease; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; malnutrition; mechanical ventilation. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
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